Ozimitsa moto amagwiritsa ntchito thovu lamadzimadzi lopangira Mafilimu (AFFF) kuti athandize kuzimitsa moto wovuta, makamaka moto womwe umakhudza mafuta a petulo kapena zakumwa zina zotentha - zotchedwa moto wa Class B. Komabe, si mafani onse ozimitsa moto omwe amadziwika kuti AFFF.

Mitundu ina ya AFFF imakhala ndi gulu la mankhwala omwe amadziwika kuti mankhwala opangira mankhwala (PFCs) ndipo izi zadzetsa nkhawa pazotheka kwa kuipitsidwa kwa madzi apansi magwero ochokera pakugwiritsa ntchito othandizira a AFFF omwe ali ndi ma PFC.

Mu Meyi 2000, Kampani ya 3M idati sipanganso opanga ma flurosurfactants ogwiritsa ntchito njira yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi. Izi zisanachitike, ma PFC omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pozimitsa moto anali PFOS ndi zotengera zake.

AFFF imazimitsa moto wamafuta mwachangu, koma imakhala ndi PFAS, yomwe imayimira zinthu za per- ndi polyfluoroalkyl. Kuwononga kwina kwa PFAS kumachokera pakugwiritsa ntchito mapovu ozimitsa moto. (Chithunzi / Mgwirizano Wapakati San Antonio)

NKHANI ZOKHUDZA

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M'zaka zingapo zapitazi, mafakitale ozimitsa moto ozimitsa moto achoka ku PFOS ndi zotengera zake chifukwa chazokakamizidwa ndi malamulo. Opanga amenewo apanga ndikubweretsa kumsika zida zozimitsira moto zomwe sizigwiritsa ntchito ma fluorochemicals, ndiye kuti, alibe fluorine.

Opanga thovu lopanda fluorine akuti nkhandwezi zimasokoneza chilengedwe ndipo zimakwaniritsa zovomerezeka zapadziko lonse lapansi zakuwombera moto komanso zomwe ogwiritsa ntchito kumapeto akuyembekezera. Komabe, pakadali nkhawa zachilengedwe zokhudzana ndi zozimitsa moto ndipo kafukufuku wapa nkhaniyi akupitilizabe.

KUKHUDZIKA NDI NTCHITO YOTSATIRA?

Zomwe zili ndi nkhawa ndizoyipa zomwe zingakhudze chilengedwe kuchokera pakutha kwa mayankho a thovu (kuphatikiza kwa madzi ndi kutsika kwa thovu). Vuto lalikulu ndi kawopsedwe, kuchepa kwa zinthu zakuthambo, kulimbikira, kuchiza m'malo opangira madzi ogwiritsira ntchito zonyansa komanso kutsitsa kwa nthaka. Zonsezi ndizoyenera kuda nkhawa njira zothetsera thovu zikafika machitidwe amadzi achilengedwe kapena apanyumba.

PFF yomwe ili ndi AFFF ikagwiritsidwa ntchito mobwerezabwereza pamalo amodzi kwakanthawi, ma PFC amatha kusuntha kuchokera ku thovu kupita munthaka kenako ndikupita m'madzi apansi panthaka. Kuchuluka kwa ma PFC omwe amalowa m'madzi apansi pamadzi zimatengera mtundu ndi kuchuluka kwa AFFF yogwiritsidwa ntchito, komwe idagwiritsidwa ntchito, mtundu wa nthaka ndi zina.

Ngati zitsime zachinsinsi kapena zapagulu zili pafupi, atha kukhudzidwa ndi ma PFC kuchokera komwe AFFF idagwiritsidwa ntchito. Nazi zomwe Dipatimenti ya Zaumoyo ku Minnesota idasindikiza; ndi amodzi mwamayiko angapo kuyesa kuipitsidwa.

"Mu 2008-2011, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) idayesa nthaka, madzi apansi, madzi apansi panthaka, ndi zinyalala m'malo omwe ali pafupi ndi 13 a AFFF mozungulira boma. Adapeza ma PFC ambiri m'malo ena, koma nthawi zambiri kuipitsidwa sikunakhudze malo akulu kapena kuyika chiopsezo kwa anthu kapena chilengedwe. Malo atatu - Duluth Air National Guard Base, Bemidji Airport, ndi Western Area Fire Training Academy - adadziwika pomwe ma PFC adafalikira mokwanira kotero kuti Minnesota department of Health ndi MPCA adaganiza zoyesa zitsime zapafupi.

"Izi zikuyenera kuchitika pafupi ndi malo omwe PFC yomwe ili ndi AFFF imagwiritsidwa ntchito mobwerezabwereza, monga malo ophunzitsira moto, ma eyapoti, zoyengera, komanso malo opangira mankhwala. Sizingatheke kuchitika chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito kamodzi kwa AFFF polimbana ndi moto, pokhapokha ngati mavoliyumu ambiri a AFFF agwiritsidwa ntchito. Ngakhale zozimitsira moto zina zotheka zitha kugwiritsa ntchito PFC yokhala ndi AFFF, kugwiritsa ntchito pang'ono pokha kungapangitse kuti madzi a pansi pa ngozi akhale owopsa. ”

ZOCHITITSA CHITSULO

Kutulutsa kwa thovu / yankho lamadzi nthawi zambiri kumatha kukhala chifukwa cha chimodzi kapena zingapo mwa zotsatirazi:

  • Kuwombera pamanja kapena kuphimba mafuta;
  • Zochita zolimbitsa thupi pomwe thovu likugwiritsidwa ntchito muzochitika;
  • Makina azida zathovu ndimayeso amgalimoto; kapena
  • Kutulutsa kokhazikika.

Malo omwe mwina chimodzi kapena zingapo mwazimenezi zitha kupezeka ndi malo opangira ndege komanso malo ophunzitsira ozimitsa moto. Maofesi apadera oopsa, monga malo osungira moto / owopsa, malo osungiramo madzi oyaka moto komanso malo osungira zinyalala oopsa, nawonso amalembetsa.

Ndikofunika kwambiri kusonkhanitsa mayankho atagwiritsidwa ntchito pozimitsa moto. Kupatula gawo la thovu lokha, chithovu chimakhala chowipitsidwa ndi mafuta kapena mafuta omwe amapezeka pamoto. Chochitika chazinthu zoopsa nthawi zonse chayambika.

Njira zogwiritsa ntchito pamanja pothana ndi madzi owopsa ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zikhalidwe ndi chilolezo chantchito. Izi zikuphatikiza kutsekereza ngalande zamadzi amphepo yamkuntho popewa njira yothira madzi a thovu / madzi kapena malo osayang'aniridwa.

Njira zodzitchinjiriza monga damming, diking ndi kupatutsa ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kupezera njira yothetsera thovu / madzi pamalo oyenera kukhalapo mpaka atachotsedwa ndi kontrakitala woyeretsa zida zowopsa.

KUPHUNZITSA NDI CHITSULO

Pali mapangidwe opangidwa mwaluso omwe amapezeka kuchokera kwa opanga thovu ambiri omwe amatsanzira AFFF panthawi yophunzitsira, koma mulibe opanga zida ngati PFC. Makola ophunzitsira awa nthawi zambiri amatha kuwonongeka ndipo samakhudza chilengedwe; atha kutumizidwanso kumalo osungira madzi akumwa komweko kuti akawakonze.

Kupezeka kwa opanga mafuta pophunzitsa thovu kumatanthauza kuti nkhandazo zimakhala ndi vuto locheperako. Mwachitsanzo, thovu lophunzitsira limapereka chotchinga choyambirira pamoto woyaka moto womwe ungayambitse kuzima, koma bulangeti la thovu liwonongeka msanga.

Ichi ndi chinthu chabwino kuchokera pamalingaliro a aphunzitsi chifukwa zikutanthauza kuti mutha kuchititsa maphunziro owonjezera chifukwa inu ndi ophunzira anu simukuyembekezera kuti pulogalamu yoyeseza iyambenso kutentha.

Zochita zamaphunziro, makamaka omwe amagwiritsa ntchito thovu lomalizidwa, zimayenera kuphatikizira zofunikira pakusonkhanitsira thovu lomwe lagwiritsidwa ntchito. Pang'ono ndi pang'ono, malo ophunzitsira moto ayenera kukhala ndi kuthekera kotolera yankho la thovu lomwe limagwiritsidwa ntchito pophunzitsira kutulutsa kumalo operekera madzi onyansa.

Asanatulutsidwe, malo opangira madzi akumwa ayenera kudziwitsidwa ndikupatsidwa chilolezo kwa ozimitsa moto kuti wothandizirayo amasulidwe pamlingo woyenera.

Zachidziwikire kuti zomwe zikuchitika panjira yolembera ya thovu la Class A (ndipo mwinanso wothandizirayo) ipitilizabe kupita patsogolo monga zakhala zikuchitika mzaka khumi zapitazi. Koma za thovu la m'kalasi B, zoyeserera zamagetsi zikuwoneka kuti zakhala zikuzizira nthawi ndikudalira matekinoloje omwe alipo kale.

Kungoyambira pomwe kukhazikitsidwa kwa malamulo azachilengedwe mzaka khumi zapitazi kapena ena pa AFFs omwe amakhala ndi fluorine pomwe opanga zida zamoto zozimitsa moto awona zovuta zachitukuko. Zina mwazinthu zopangira ma fluorine ndizoyambira ndipo zina zimakhala za m'badwo wachiwiri kapena wachitatu.

Adzapitilizabe kusinthika m'zinthu zonse zamagetsi ndi zozimitsa moto ndi cholinga chokwaniritsa magwiridwe anthawi zonse amadzimadzi oyaka komanso oyaka, kulimbikira koteteza kumbuyo kwa chitetezo cha ozimitsa moto ndikupatsanso zaka zina zambiri za alumali pamatope omwe amachokera ku protein. 


Post nthawi: Aug-27-2020